300 Most Repeated Questions (FPSC/PPSC Written Test)

1. The river Danube rises in which country?
2. Which US state has the sugar maple as its state tree and is the leading US producer of maple sugar?

3. Which country is nicknamed ‘The Cockpit of Europe’ because of the number of battles throughout history fought on its soil?

4. What is the capital of Libya?

5. Apart from French, German and Romansch, what is the fourth official language of the Switzerland?


6. Which country is the world’s largest producer of coffee?

7. In which city was the world’s first underground train was service opened in 1863?

8. How many pairs of ribs are there in the human body?

9. Which country is separated form Ethiopia by the Red Sea?

10. What is the main port of Italy?

11. Mount Logan is the highest peak in which country?

12. In which state is Harvard University?
New Jersey.

13. Which is larger: Norway or Finland?

14. Which city was the first capital of the Kingdom of Italy until 1865?

15. What is measured by an ammeter?
Electric current.

16. What is a rhinoceros horn made of?

17. Which three countries, apart from the former Yugoslavia, share borders with Greece?
Albania, Bulgaria, Turkey.

18. The Palk Strait separates which two countries?
India and Sri Lanka.

19. Ga is the symbol for which element?

20. In the Greek alphabet, what is the name for the letter O?

21. What, in the 16th and 17th century, was a pavana?
A dance.

22. A nephron is the functional unit of which organ in the human body?

23. In which country is the ancient city of Tarsus?

24. The Khyber Pass links which two countries?
Afghanistan and Pakistan.

25. Name the six US states that comprise New England.
Rhode Island, Connecticut, Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont and Massachusetts.

26. Which musical instrument is played by both exhaling and inhaling?
Harmonica (or mouth organ).

27. The northern part of which country is called Oesling?

28. Napier is a city in which country?
New Zealand.

29. What is the Hook of Holland?
A port in the southeast Netherlands,

30. The river Douro forms part of the border between which two countries?
Spain and Portugal.

31. In which country is the Great Slave Lake?

32. Which six countries border the Black Sea?
Bulgaria, Georgia, Romania, Russia, Turkey and Ukraine.

33. Kathmandu is the capital of which country?

34. What name is given to a mixture of bicarbonate of soda and tartaric acid used in cooking?
Baking powder.

35. AOL are an internet service provider. What does AOL stand for?
America Online.

36. Who discovered penicillin?
Alexander Fleming.

37. Which English queen had an extra finger on her hand?
Anne Boleyn.

38. Which precious metal has the symbol Pt?

39. The Gobi desert extends over which two countries?
China and Mongolia.

40. Apart from America, which is the only country in the world to which alligators are native?
41. Which are the highest types of clouds: stratocumulus or cirrus?

42. Which ancient measure of length was based on the length of the arm from fingertip to elbow?

43. After World War I, Transylvania became part of which country?

44. Which sea in Northern Europe is bounded by several countries including Sweden, Finland, Poland and Germany?
The Baltic.

45. A road tunnel runs from Pelerins in France to Entreves in Italy under which mountain?
Mont Blanc.

46. The Barents Sea is part of which ocean?

47. Which two countries are either side of the mouth of the River Plate?
Argentina and Uruguay.

48. Quicklime is an alkaline powder obtained by strongly heating which other material?

49. What is the longest river solely in England?

50. The Great Barrier Reef is off coast of which Australian state?

51. What is the name of the milky fluid obtained from trees which is used to produce rubber?

52. Of what is entymology the study?

53. Of where is Amman the capital?

54. How many innings are there for each team in a game of baseball?

55. Which is the only mammal with the power of active flight?

56. Which lower level of clouds are commonly called ‘rain clouds’?

57. What is the longest river in India?

58. Which metallic element has the property of catching fire if dropped in hot water?

59. Which month of the year obtains its name from the Latin verb for ‘to open’?

60. On what river does Rome stand?

61. Quantas is the national airline of which country?

62. What in Scotland is the meaning of the prefix ‘Inver’?
River mouth.

63. Which US state has the lowest population?

64. Which county is nicknamed the Garden of England?

65. Which African country was formerly called French Sudan?

66. Which sport was originally called ‘soccer-in-water’?
Water polo.

67. Which unit of measurement is derived from the Arabic quirrat, meaning seed?

68. Which Italian city was originally built on seven hills?

69. What does the acronym NAAFI stand for?
Navy, Army and Air Force Institutes.

70. Dolomite is an ore of which metal?

71. Manama is the capital of which country?

72. On which river does Berlin stand?
River Spree.

73. What type of clock was invented in 1656 by Christian Huygens?
The pendulum clock.

74. In which desert is the world’s driest place?
Atacama (Chile).

75. Which is the world’s saltiest sea?
The Red Sea.

76. …… and which is the least salty?
The Baltic Sea.

77. Which nun won the Nobel prize for peace in 1979?
Mother Teresa.

78. How many points in the pink ball worth in snooker?

79. Which scientist was named ‘Person of the Century’ by Time Magazine?
Albert Einstein.

80. What kind of creature is a monitor?
81. Which medical specialty is concerned with the problems and illnesses of children?

82. Who sailed in Santa Maria?
Christopher Columbus.

83. What name is given to the stiffening of the body after death?
Rigor mortis.

84. Which country was formerly known as Malagasy Republic?

85. Addis Ababa is the capital of which country?

86. The name of which North African city literally means ‘white house’?

87. Of what sort of fish is the dogfish a small variety?

88. Which Asian country was divided at the 38th parallel after World War II?

89. What is the name of the Winter Olympics event that combines cross-country skiing and shooting?

90. Which American science-fiction writer wrote Fahrenheit 451?
Ray Bradbury.

91. For which powerful opiate is diamorphine the technical name?

92. How many dominoes are there in a normal set?

93. Who was cartoonist who created Batman?
Bob Kane.

94. Aerophobia is a fear of flying, agoraphobia is a fear of open spaces, what is acrophobia a fear of?

95. In computing, how is a modulator-demodulator more commonly known?

96. An auger bit is used to drill what type of material?

97. What part of the wheelbarrow is the fulcrum?
The wheel.

98. What C is a device used to determine small lengths, of which a vernier is one type?

99. Rip, chain and band are types of which tools?

100. What calibrated tool was the standard tool for engineers and scientists prior to the invention of the hand-held calculator?
Slide rule.

101. What P is sometimes referred to as block and tackle?

102. For what purpose would a gardener use a dibber?
Making holes.

103. What J is a device used to raise an object too heavy to deal with by hand?

104. Ball-pein, club, claw and bush are types of which tool?

105. Which African animal’s name means ‘river horse’?

106. Which Indian religion was founded by Guru Nanak?

107. What is the most distant of the giant planets?

108. What is the capital of Austria?

109. What in printing do the letters ‘u.c.’ stand for?
Upper case.

110. Which eye infection is sometimes called pinkeye?

111. What sort of creature is an iguana?
A lizard.

112. What, politically, does UDI stand for?
Unilateral declaration of independence.

113. Wagga Wagga is a city in which Australian state?
New South Wales.

114. Which Indian religion celebrated the 300th anniversary of its founding in 1999?

115. What do the initials FBI stand for?
Federal Bureau of Investigation.

116. By what name is the fruit of the plant Ananas comosus known?

117. Donnerstag is German for which day of the week?

118. What type of citrus fruit is a shamouti?

119. Apiphobia is a fear of what?

120. Which Asian capital city was known as Batavia until 1949?
121. Which astronomical unit os distance is greater, a parsec or a light year?
A parsec.

122. The ancient city of Carthage is now in which country?

123. What in Russia is Izvestia?
A newspaper.

124. Which is the world’s windiest continent?

125. In the book Treasure Island what is the name of the ship?

126. In which part of the body are the deltoid muscles?

127. E is the international car registration letter for which country?

128. Vienna stands on which river?

129. What type of camel has two lumps?

130. In the MG motor car, what do the letters MG stand for?
Morris Garages.

131. The name of which Roman god means ‘shining father’ in Latin?

132. What is the central colour of a rainbow?

133. Which French city is a meeting place for the European Parliament?

134. What part of the body consists of the duodenum, the jejunum and the ileum?
Small intestine.

135. Annapurna is a mountain in which mountain range?

136. What kind of foodstuff is Monterey Jack? (It was also a cartoon’s name
‘What’s for breakfast?’

187. What is the name of a person, plant or animal which shuns the light?

188. What, in field of optics, is biconvex?
A lens which is convex on both sides.

189. Which country was invaded in Iraq in 1980?

190. What did Johann Galle discover in 1846?

191. What, in internet terminology, does SMTP stand for?
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol.

192. How is October 24 1929 remembered?
Black Thursday.

193. The River Danube flows into which sea?
The Black Sea.

194. Which strait separates the North and South islands of New Zealand?
Cook Strait.

195. What, in internet terminology, does FTP stand for?
File Transfer Protocol.

196. Who wrote Black Beauty?
Anna Sewell.

197. What is the capital of Poland?

198. Ice-cream was first produced in which country in the 17th century?

199. In medicine, what does the acronym SARS stand for?
Severe Acute Respiratory System.

200. Which popular name for Netherlands is actually a low-lying region of the country?

201. Which Shakepeare play was set in Elsinore Castle, Denmark?

202. Who said: ‘Genius is 1% inspiration and 99% perspiration’?

203. The Kyukyu Island chain lies between which two countries?
Japan & Taiwan.

204. Which fibrous protein is the major constituent of hair, nails, feathers, beaks and claws?

205. Of which fruit is morello a variety?

206. Which explorer discovered Victoris Falls in Africa?
David Livingstone.

207. Who was the last king of Egypt?

208. What is the literal meaning of the word mafia?

209. Which war lasted 16 years longer than its name implies?
The Hundred Year’s War.

210. What is the national sport of Malaysia and Indonesia?

211. Which is the shallowest of the Great Lakes?
Lake Erie.

212. What name is given to minute or microscopic animals and plants that live in the upper layers of fresh and salt water?

213. Which country was originally named Cathay?

214. Sinhalese is a language spoken in which country?
Sri Lanka.

215. The Sao Francisco river flows through which country?

216. In which sport do teams compete for the Dunhill Cup?

217. Which Shakespeare character’s last words are: ‘The rest is silence’?

218. In economics, whose law states that: ‘bad money drives out good money’?

219. Who made the first navigation of the globe in the vessel Victoria?

220. Which mountaineer on being asked why he wanted to climb Everest said: ‘Because it’s there’?
George Mallory.
221. What was the former name for Sri Lanka?

222. Of which Middle East, country is Baghdad the capital?

223. How many arms does a squid have?

224. Which indoor game is played with a shuttlecock?

225. Do stalactites grow upwards or downwards?

226. What food is also called garbanzo?

227. What is the quality rating for diesel fuel, similar to the octane number for petrol?
Catane number.

228. Which German city and port is at the confluence of the rivers Neckar and Rhine?

229. Where in Europe are the only wild apes to be found?

230. The Brabanconne is the national anthem of which country?

231. In which country is the River Spey?

232. Which international environmental pressure group was founded in 1971?

233. What is the capital of Morocco?

234. How many balls are on the table at the start of a game of pool?

235. In which country is the volcano Mount Aso?

236. What name is given to inflammation of one or more joints, causing pain, swelling and restriction of movement?

237. Which mineral is the main source of mercury?

238. What A is the national airline of Russia, code name SU?

239. What would be kept in a quiver?

240. What ‘ology’ is concerned with the study of unidentified flying objects?
241. Coal and longtailed are types of which bird family?

242. In the game of darts, what is the value of the outer bull?

243. In which part of the human body is the cochlea?

244. What is the modern name of the rocky fortress which the Moors named Gabel-al-Tarik (the Rock of Tarik)?

245. What was the name of German terrorist Andreas Baader’s female partner?
Ulrike Meinhof.

246. And what was the name of the urban guerrilla organisation they headed?
The Red Army Faction.

247. Which German bacteriologist discovered Salvarsan, a compound used in the treatment of syphilis, before the introduction of antibiotics?
Paul Ehrlich.

248. Which ancient Roman satirist wrote the 16 Satires?

249. Who became the Queen of Netherlands in 1980?

250. Who was the last Bristish king to appear in battle?
George II.

251. What is the art of preparing, stuffing and mounting the skins of animals to make lifelike models called?

252. What is the Beaufort scale used to measure?
Wind speed.

253. What is the technical name for abnormally high blood presure?

254. What part of eye is responsible for its color?
The iris.

256. The letter RF on a stamp would indicate it is from which country?

257. What is the meaning of the musical term cantabile?
In a singing style.

258. San Juan is the capital of which island in the West Indies?
Puerto Rico.

259. Which profession gets its name from the Latin word for lead?

260. On which part of the body do grasshoppers have their ears?
Hind legs. 261. Who wrote children’s stories about the land of Narnia?
C.S. Lewis.

262. What is the second planet from the sun?

263. What is the highest mountain in the Alps?
Mont Blanc.

264. Of which Caribbean country is Port-au-Prince the capital?

265. Which German city is asscociated with the legend of the Pied Piper?
Hameln, or Hamelin.

266. What name is given to the wind pattern that brings heavy rain to South Asia from April to September?

267. What is the first book of the New Testament?
The Gospel according to Saint Matthew.

268. What name is given to the time taken for half the atoms in a sample of a radioactive isotope to decay?

269. Who was president of Kenya from 1964 to 1978?
Jomo Kenyatta.

270. Which German author wrote the anti-war novel All Quiet on the Western Front?
Erich Maria Remarque.

271. Which country had a police force called the Tonton Macoutes?

272. What would you find in formicary?

273. Who was the first British sovereign to make regular use of Buckingham Palace when in residence in London?
Queen Victoria.

274. Of where is Sofia the capital?

275. What is meant by the musical term andante?
At a moderate tempo.

276. In a bullfight, what is the mounted man with a lance called?
A picador.

277. Which team has a soccer team called Ajax?

278. Which Dutch explorer discovered New Zealand?
Abel Tasman.

279. Who became first black world heavyweight boxing champion in 1918?
Jack Johnson.

280. The name of which city in South America means Vale of Paradise?
_____281. Which gas used in advertising signs has the symbol Ne?

282. Which branch of mathematics uses symbols to represent unknown quantities?

283. What does the abbreviation RAF stand for?
Royal Air Force.

284. What name is given to the use of live animals in the experiments?

285. Viti Levu is the largest island of which country?

286. The Golden Arrow was a famous train that ran from Paris to which destination?
Monte Carlo.

287. Which country fought on both sides during World War II?

288. What centigrade temperature is gas mark 6 equal to?
200 degrees C.

289. In the game of chess, which piece is called springer in Germany?

290. What is the meaning of the Russian word ‘mir’?

291. Who, in World War II, were Axis Power?
Germany, Italy. Japan.

292. Which scientist used kites to conduct electrical experiments?
Benjamin Frankline.

293. What is the longest river in France?

294. Which inventore had a research laboratory at Menlo Park?

295. Which birds fly in groups called skeins?

296. In medicine, which is the most widespread parasitic infection?

297. What nationality was the explorer Ferdinand Magellan?

298. Which Italian city is called Firenze in Italian?

299. What is Autralia’s largest city?

300. Which term meaning ‘lightning war’ was used to describe military tactics used by Germany in World War II?



1.1988 noble peace prize has been awarded to:

a.Diego Cordovez

b.Anwar Sadat

c.United Nations

2.Dan Quayle is:

a.Mexican footballer

b.American Politician


c.Prime Minister of Brazil

3.Gen. Augusto Pinochet is:

a.Leader of Contrast in Nicaragua

b.Military Dictator of el-Salvador

c.President of Chile

4.Robert Mugabe is:

a.President of Zimbabwe

b.President of Kenya

c.Prime Minister of Angola

5.Sakharov is:

a.Anti-Soviet Polish Leader

b.Secretary General of the Hungarian Communist Party

c.Soviet Nuclear Scientist

6.The last day of the Quaid-e-Azam was written by:

a.M. A. H. Isphani

b.Fatima Jinnah

c.Col. Illahi Bukhsh (probably, iam not sure)

7.The new Olympic Champion in Hockey is:


b.West Germany

c.England (during the year 1988)

8.The process of European integration is scheduled to be completed by:




(Do you have any idea about that? Wild guess is option c)

9.The Bofors Scandal occurred in:




10.The Black Sea and the Mediterranean are connected by:

a.Shattal Arab


c.Strait of Gibraltar

PPSC Headmaster Past Paper solved-2015(Ist Time)

PPSC Headmaster Past Paper

1 classroom mangmnt is main responsibility of
A teacher
B head teacher
C ?
Ans A
2 curriculum implementaiton?
A teacher
B principal
3 school administration is best judged by
A teacher-principl relation
B teacher-student relation
C learning outcomes
D beautiful builiding
Ans learning outcomes
4 charter act was
Ansr 1813
5 values are nearly equals in
A Realism
B idealism
C perennialism
D existantialiam
6 scientific society
Ans 1864
7which is not psychomotor skill
Ans creating ideas
8 aims are
Ans at national level
9 unesco conference held in Karachi on
A 1960
B 1965
Jwab ka pta ni
10 three 3Rs are
A reading writing listening
B reading writing arithematics
C reading listening speaking
D wo b kuch aisa th
11 best method for learning
A lecture mthd
B interactive
C d ka pta ni
12 grants from govt and expnditure are written in
A cash book
B budget register
C contingent registr
D aquintence regstr
13 ontology is related
Ans reality
14 when what how etc related with
Ans educational psychology
15 capabilities and intellect is concerned with
A personality
B cognition
C behaviour
15 pursuit of wisdom and truth
Ans philosophy
16 spread authority in organization
Ans decentrelization
17 x y theaories presented by
Ans Mcgregore
18 in democratic approach
Ans sharing of ideas
19 learner is more active in
A project mthd
B lecture mthd
C inquiry mthd
D not related yad b ni
20 emphasis on permanency is in
Ans perennialism
31 commission 1959 presided by
Ans SM Sharif
32 CAI stand for
Ans computer assisted instructions
33 DDO
Ans drawing and disbursing officer
34 school record management is the main responsibility of
A clerk
B headmaster
Cd not related
35 most popular mthd in teachers is
A lecture mthd
B text book reading mthd
C recitation mthd
D Qs Ans mthd
36 higher secondary school range is
A 1-12
B 6-12
C 9-12
D 11-12
37 kindergarten concept by
Ans frobel
38 indian education commission
Ans i think 1882
39 lesson plan checking is main responsibilty of
A principal
C district teacher educator
40 teacher training is focusses by
A muslim
B english
C greeks
D yad ni i tick on english
o Table of specification kea hy?
Types of test?
formula to determine I.q
Final product of measurement is
A) Result
B) score
C) Data
D) Information
Who said curriculum is plan for learning?
Micro teaching is ?skill answer

PPSC Headmaster Past Paper solved-2015(2nd Time)

 PPSC Headmaster 2nd time PAPER 2016

1. teacher state and perform in (demonstration method)
2. motivation in which done something for own sake. (intrinsic)
3. john Dewey thoughts reflect in (learner centered curriculum)
4. who is not curriculum practitioner. (curriculum expert)
5. islamic and non governmental (dar ul uloom deoband)
6. supervision characterized as: (improvement of learning)
7. final approval of curriculum (ministry of education)
8. inspection concept started (england)
9. determining good or bad of something (axiology)
10. head treat strictly in (theory x)
11. profession is (job)
12. shah wali ullah philosophy (realism)
13. individual living in society (existentialism)
14. effective leadership is due to traits,and behaviour of leader (trait theory)
15. which method make educational psychology a science (experimental)
16. education objectives derived from ( society)
17. socratic method (dialectic method) but doubted.
18. acquittance rol (salary disbursement)
19. national curriculum is(intended)
20. route learning is demerit of (subject centered curriculum)
21. projecter which project the image on transparent screen ( film) doubted
22. this question was about school curriculum. forgotten
23. Dy. DEO works on ( tehsil level)
24. norm reference test (individual)
25. Hilda tiba definition of curriculum.
26. projective techniques measure (personality)
27. real mentoring in school on the base of relations. (social) doubted
28. father of modern management theory (fayol)
29. articles purchased (contingent register)
30. adaptations of piageten theory (assimilation and accommodation)
31. separate state for muslims on bases of ( religion and culture)
32. jamia milia medium of instruction (urdu)
33. successful working of school depend (suitable time table)
34. 1st educational conference presided by (fazal ur Rehman)
35. crow n crow definition of education.
36. al ghazali study (philosophy) for quest.
37. process of education (birth to death)
38. scientific and technical knowledge obtained from (experimental and observation)
39. practical aspect of philosophy(learning)
40. Rousseau statement about his philosophy naturalism.
41. dewey statement about experience.
42. levels of education in Pakistan ( 5)
43. teacher ask questions in class ( to make attentive)
44. ful flegged education institutions are established in universities to improve (research)
45. literal meaning of curriculum (path)
46. cognition referred to. (thinking)
47. experiment data is collected for: is tarha ka question tha.
48. education is to think, to : (behave)
49. attention is (mental activity)
50. modern supervision in its broader sense. (leadership)
51. transition of culture due to (school)
52. charter act medium (english)
53. computer education first introduced in Pakistan (1992 policy)
54. KG school by (froebel)
55. curriculum should be improved for (emerging new knowledge) doubted
56. outline of topics (syllabus)
57. teacher efforts are less in (subject centered curriculum)
58. pedagogy (teaching metho…
[5:34 AM, 10/31/2018] +92 302 9004516: . seek problem during process is ( formative evaluation)
71. POSDCORB, P is (planning)
72. blue print includes experiences for (learner)
73. axiology deals with (values)
74. no system is good without teachers, (1959 commission)
75. drama at school level ignore sometimes. I select (refreshments and enjoyment) but later feel is it (do make rehearsals)
76. teaching at elementary level ( activity based)
77. students respect teachers due to ( personal integrity of teacher)
78. which philosophy answer this question, how can we communicate with others without personal contradictions. (axiology) doubted
79. evaluation is (value judgement of student’s learning)
80. which is not data collector ( observation)
81. socio situational theory ( bandura)
82. knowledge from Allah (revelation)
83. in classroom we observe (objectives)
84. PEC ( punjab education commission)
85. when head direct teachers to do something (leadership)
86. graph with value changes (pie) doubted
87. SOLO phases (5)
88. desirable modes of behaviour of society (morals) doubted
89. analysis,synthesis and evaluative measures of student through( essay)
90. facial expressions, body language (non verbal)
91. concept of free educatio ( karl marx) doubted
92. research start from ( problem)
93. drawing and implementation of curricula, draw concept from (culture or nation)
94. heart of management (planning)
95. communication without words ( non verbal)
96. goals are based on selection of ( ans forgotten)
97. curriculum with minimum books ( integrated curriculum)
98. project, role play, experiment, lab methods r ( doing methods)
99. ibn e khaldun was against ( question answer method)
100. not a good data collector (observation)

FPSC Assistant Director FIA Past Paper 1

FPSC Assistant Director Past Papers Page-1. The following questions are from past Assistant Director Tests for the jobs in FIA, IB or Federal Government Organization (BS-17) taken by Federal Public Service Commission. Find answers to the questions at the bottom of the page.



Choose the word that is most nearly similar in meaning to the word in capital letters.

    (A) famous
    (B) unknown
    (C) about to happen
    (D) to criticize
    (A) shaky
    (B) permanent
    (C) rude
    (D) expensive

Choose the word that is most nearly opposite in meaning to the word in capital letters.

    (A) learned
    (B) uneducated
    (C) hungry
    (D) to eat a lot of food
    (A) horrible
    (B) harmful
    (C) evil
    (D) virtue

Which from the following underlined word(s) is/are incorrect?

(A) A
(B) B
(C) C
(D) D

(A) A
(B) B
(C) C
(D) D

(A) A
(B) B
(C) C
(D) D

(A) A
(B) B
(C) C
(D) D

  1. The train went slower and slower until it stopped
    (A) altogether
    (B) all together
    (C) already
    (D) all ready
  2. __________ about future market movements should be based on scientific study.
    (A) Reference
    (B) Inference
    (C) Conference
    (D) Deference

1(C) 2(A) 3(B) 4(D) 5(C)
6(C) 7(D) 8(A) 9(A) 10(B)

Ananth Kumar : Biography, Politics career, Criticisms & Achievements

Ananth Kumar Biography

Ananth Kumar is an Indian political leader and social worker, trader, and also a successful industrialist. He is a Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) member of the 14th Lok Sabha of India elected from Bangalore. He was born on 22nd July 1959 in Bangalore (Karnataka) to H.N. Narayan Shastry and Girija N. Shastry. He married Smt. Tejaswini A. on 15th February 1989 and has two daughters. He passed his graduation in arts from K.S. Arts College and L.L.B degree from J.S.S. Law College, Karnataka University.

Ananth Kumar is an influential leader of BJP in Karnataka. He was influenced by the ideologies of Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh in his college days and became a part of Akhil Bharatiya Vidyarthi Parishad ( A.B.V.P), a student wing. While participating in the J.P. Movement against Emergency Rule in India, during1975-77, he was imprisoned for almost 40 days.

At a very early age, he was elected as the secretary of A.B.V.P., of Karnataka from 1982 to 85 and then appointed as the National Secretary of the organization from 1985 to 87.

Ananth Kumar joined Bharatiya Janata Party, after graduating from A.B.V.P. He was appointed as the secretary of B.J.P, Karnataka from 1987 to 88, then its General Secretary from 1988 to 95 and finally rose to the position of National Secretary of B.J.P from 1995 to 98.

Ananth Kumar was elected in the four Lok Sabha elections consecutively, in the 11th, 12th, 13th and in the 14th Lok Sabha elections. He was one of the distinguished leaders to raise his voice and fight for the Ram Janmabhoomi cause in Karnataka. In 1998, he was included in the cabinet led by Atal Behari Vajpayee as the minister for Civil Aviation.

This youngest minister in the Vajpayee’s cabinet efficiently handled a number of ministries like Tourism, Sports, Youth Affairs & Culture, Urban Development and Poverty Alleviation. During his tenure he introduced various fresh innovative approaches, diplomatic thinking and planning, improving the lives of millions of people through various developmental projects.

Michelle Obama Biography U.S. First Lady, Lawyer

Michelle Obama is the wife of former U.S. President Barack Obama. Prior to her role as first lady, she was a lawyer, Chicago city administrator and community-outreach worker.

Who Is Michelle Obama?

Michelle Obama was born in 1964 in Chicago, Illinois. She attended Princeton University, graduating cum laude in 1985, and went on to earn a degree from Harvard Law School in 1988. 

Following her graduation from Harvard, she worked at a Chicago law firm, where she met her husband, future U.S. president Barack Obama. The couple married on October 3, 1992. As first lady, she focused her attention on current social issues, such as poverty, healthy living and education.

Michelle Obama as a Child

Michelle Obama was born Michelle LaVaughn Robinson on January 17, 1964, in Chicago, Illinois.

Michelle was raised in a small bungalow on Chicago’s South Side. Her father, Fraser Robinson, was a city-pump operator and a Democratic precinct captain. Her mother, Marian, was a secretary at Spiegel’s but later stayed home to raise Michelle and her older brother, Craig. They were a close-knit family, typically sharing meals, reading and playing games together.

Craig and Michelle, 21 months apart in age, were often mistaken for twins. The siblings also shared close quarters, sleeping in the living room with a sheet serving as a makeshift room divider. They were raised with an emphasis on education and had learned to read at home by age four. Both skipped the second grade.

Michelle Obama Education

By the sixth grade, Michelle was taking classes in her school’s gifted program, where she learned French and completed accelerated courses in biology. She went on to attend Whitney M. Young Magnet High School, the city’s first magnet high school for gifted children, where, among other activities, she served as the student government treasurer. In 1981, Michelle graduated from the school as class salutatorian.

Following in her older brother’s footsteps, Michelle then attended Princeton University, graduating cum laude in 1985 with a B.A. in Sociology. She went on to study law at Harvard Law School, where she took part in demonstrations calling for the enrollment and hiring of more minority students and professors. She was awarded her J.D. in 1988.

Marriage to Barack Obama

After law school, Michelle worked as an associate in the Chicago branch of the firm Sidley Austin, in the area of marketing and intellectual property. It was there, in 1989, that she met her future husband, Barack Obama, a summer intern to whom she was assigned as an adviser. 

Initially, she refused to date Barack, believing that their work relationship would make the romance improper. She eventually relented, however, and the couple soon fell in love. 

Did You Know? The Obamas’ first kiss took place outside of a Chicago shopping center—where a plaque featuring a photo of the couple kissing was installed more than two decades later, in August 2012.

After two years of dating, Barack proposed, and the couple married at Trinity United Church of Christ on October 3, 1992. Their daughters, Malia and Sasha, were born in 1998 and 2001, respectively. 

High-Profile Work in Chicago

In 1991, Michelle decided to leave corporate law and pursue a career in public service, working as an assistant to Mayor Richard Daley and then as the assistant commissioner of planning and development for the City of Chicago.

In 1993, she became executive director for the Chicago office of Public Allies, a nonprofit leadership-training program that helped young adults develop skills for future careers in the public sector.

In 1996, Michelle joined the University of Chicago as associate dean of student services, developing the school’s first community-service program. Beginning in 2002, she worked for the University of Chicago Hospitals, as executive director of community relations and external affairs.

In May 2005, Michelle was appointed vice president for community and external affairs at the University of Chicago Medical Center, where she continued to work part-time until shortly before her husband’s inauguration as president. She also served as a board member for the prestigious Chicago Council on Global Affairs.

On the Campaign Trail

Michelle Obama first caught the eye of a national audience while at her husband’s side when he delivered a high-profile speech at the Democratic National Convention in 2004. BarackObama was elected as U.S. Senator from Illinois that November.

In 2007, Michelle scaled back her own professional work to attend to family and campaign obligations during Barack’s run for the Democratic presidential nomination. When they were out on the trail, they would leave their daughters with their grandmother Marian, Michelle’s mother. 

Barack Obama eventually won the nomination and was elected the 44th President of the United States. Obama was inaugurated on January 20, 2009. 

When her husband sought reelection in 2012, facing a challenging race against Republican presidential nominee Mitt Romney, Michelle Obama diligently campaigned on his behalf. She traveled the country, giving talks and making public appearances. 

Michelle Obama Speech

In September of that year, Michelle delivered a noteworthy speech at the Democratic National Convention. “Every day, the people I meet inspire me, every day they make me proud, every day they remind me how blessed we are to live in the greatest nation on earth,” she said. “Serving as your first lady is an honor and a privilege.” 

She went on to praise the Latino community for supporting President Obama, and stated that her husband—”the same man [she] fell in love with all those years ago”—understands the American Dream, as well as the everyday struggles of American families, and cares deeply about making a difference in people’s lives. Michelle won both public and critical praise for her narrative, called a “shining moment” by the Washington Post.

On November 6, 2012, Barack Obama was re-elected for a second term as U.S. president. After Mitt Romney conceded defeat, Michelle Obama accompanied her husband with their two daughters, Malia and Sasha, onto the stage at McCormick Place in Chicago, where President Obama delivered his victory speech. 

Michelle Obama Fashion

After her husband’s political role pushed the Obama family into the spotlight, Michelle was publicly recognized for her no-nonsense campaign style as well as her sense of fashion. 

In May 2006, Michelle was featured in Essence magazine as one of “25 of the World’s Most Inspiring Women.” In September 2007, Michelle was included in 02138 magazine as number 58 in “The Harvard 100,” a yearly list of the school’s most influential alumni. 

She has also twice appeared on the cover of Vogue and made the Vanity Fair best-dressed list two years in a row as well as People magazine’s 2008 best-dressed list.

During the inauguration ceremony for her husband’s second term, on January 21, 2013, Michelle and her daughters received attention for their fashion choices, which included clothes from Thom Browne, J. Crew and Kate Spade. Michelle also drew praise for the red Jason Wu dress she wore during the subsequent events.

Issues and Causes

As first lady of the United States, Michelle Obama focused her attention on issues such as the support of military families, helping working women balance career and family and encouraging national service. During the first year of the Obama presidency, Michelle and her husband volunteered at homeless shelters and soup kitchens in the Washington, D.C. area. Michelle also made appearances at public schools, stressing the importance of education and volunteer work.

Ever conscious of her family’s diet and health, Michelle supported the organic-food movement, instructing the White House kitchens to prepare organic food for guests and her family. In March 2009, Michelle worked with 23 fifth graders from a local school in Washington D.C. to plant an 1,100-square-foot garden of fresh vegetables and install beehives on the South Lawn of the White House. She also put efforts to fight childhood obesity near the top of her agenda.

Michelle Obama remained committed to her health-and-wellness causes. In 2012, she announced a new fitness program for kids as part of her Let’s Move initiative. Along with the U.S. Olympic team and other sports organizations, she worked to get young people to try out a new sport or activity. 

“This year, 1.7 million young people will be participating in Olympic and Paralympic sports in their communities — many of them for the very first time. And that is so important, because sometimes all it takes is that first lesson, or clinic, or class to get a child excited about a new sport,” she said in a statement.

Putting her message in print, Michelle released a book as part of her mission to promote healthy eating. American Grown: The Story of the White House Kitchen Garden and Gardens Across America (2012) explores her own experience creating a vegetable garden as well as the work of community gardens elsewhere. 

She told Reuters that she saw the book as an opportunity to help readers understand “where their food was coming from” and “to talk about the work that we’re doing with childhood obesity and childhood health.”

First Family

Both Michelle and Barack Obama have stated that their personal priority is their two daughters, Malia and Sasha. The parents realized that the move from Chicago to Washington D.C. would be a major adjustment for any family. Residing in the White House, having Secret Service protection and always being in the wake of their parents’ public obligations dramatically transformed their lives.

Both parents tried to make their daughters’ world as “normal” as possible, with set times for studying, going to bed and getting up. “My first priority will always be to make sure that our girls are healthy and grounded,” Michelle has said. “Then I want to help other families get the support they need, not just to survive, but to thrive.”

Support for Hillary Clinton

In July 2016, former first lady, senator and secretary of state Hillary Clinton became the official Democratic nominee for the American presidency, becoming the first woman in the U.S. to win a major political party’s presidential nomination. 

On the first night of the Democratic National Convention, Michelle spoke in support of Clinton, who had previously run against Barack Obama during the 2008 primaries, and her vision of a progressive America. 

“I wake up every morning in a house that was built by slaves, and I watch my daughters, two beautiful, intelligent, black young women, playing with their dogs on the White House lawn,” she said. “And because of Hillary Clinton, my daughters, and all our sons and daughters, now take for granted that a woman can be president of the United States.”

Obama continued to campaign for Clinton, speaking out forcefully against the campaign of Republican candidate Donald Trump, who went on to win the presidential election. 

On January 13, 2017, Obama made her final speech as first lady at the White House, saying “being your first lady has been the greatest honor of my life and I hope I’ve made you proud.”

In an emotional moment, she addressed young Americans: ”I want our young people to know that they matter, that they belong. So don’t be afraid. You hear me, young people? Don’t be afraid. Be focused. Be determined. Be hopeful. Be empowered. Empower yourself with a good education. Then get out there and use that education to build a country worthy of your boundless promise. Lead by example with hope; never fear.”

After the White House

After leaving the White House, Obama remained highly sought after for her words of wisdom. In November 2017, during a conversation with poet Elizabeth Alexander at the Obama Foundation’s inaugural youth leadership summit in Chicago, she spoke about the problems with impulsively firing off thoughts on social media.

“When you have a voice, you can’t just use it any kind of way, you know?” she said. “You don’t just say what’s on your mind. You don’t tweet every thought. Most of your first initial thoughts are not worthy of the light of day.” It was believed to be a rebuke of President Trump, a notorious Twitter devotee, though Obama clarified that she was “talking about all of us.” 

The former first lady also addressed the topic of protecting women from sexual harassment, a hot-button issue stemming from recent accusations made against Hollywood producer Harvey Weinstein and others in position of power. 

“When we think about women in particular we ask them to speak up. We ask them to speak their mind. We ask them to just say no, to speak out against sexual harassment,” Obama said. “But if we don’t teach our young girls to speak at an early age, that doesn’t just happen. It takes practice to have a voice. You have to use it again, and again, and again before you can say ‘no.’ Or ‘stop.’ ‘Don’t touch me.'”

On February 12, 2018, the Smithsonian’s National Portrait Gallery unveiled its official portraits of Barack and Michelle Obama. Rendered by African-American artists, the colorful portraits were noticeably different from the more traditional efforts of past years: Kehinde Wiley’s work featured Barack in a chair surrounded by greenery and symbolic flowers, while Amy Sherald depicted the former first lady in a flowing dress, gazing back at viewers from a sea of blue.

Later in the month, Obama announced that her upcoming memoir, Becoming, was scheduled for a release date of November 13, 2018, one week after the U.S. midterm elections. Describing the “deeply personal experience” of writing the book, she tweeted: “I talk about my roots and how a girl from the South Side found her voice. I hope my journey inspires readers to find the courage to become whoever they aspire to be.”

In May 2018, Michelle and Barack Obama announced that they signed a multi-year deal to produce series and films for Netflix. “Barack and I have always believed in the power of storytelling to inspire us, to make us think differently about the world around us,” the former First Lady said in a statement.

in a statement.

Software Quality Assurance-Simple Notes 1

Software Quality Assurance


At the end of this chapter, the students should be able to:

  1. Differentiate quality control from quality assurance
  2. Explain the different SQA activities
  3. Estimate the quality of the software based on software quality metrics

Software Quality Assurance (SQA)

An umbrella activity that is applied throughout the software engineering process. It is an error-prevention technique that focuses on the process of systems and software developmentIt is a planned and systematic pattern of actions that are required to ensure quality in software.  SQA encompasses:

  1. analysis, design, coding and testing methods and tools
  2. formal technical reviews that are applied during each software engineering step
  3. a multi tiered testing strategy
  4. control of software documentation and the changes made to it
  5. a procedure to assure compliance with software development standards
  6. measurement and reporting mechanism

SQA is often thought of as a software testing activity – WRONG

If quality isn’t part of a product prior to testing, it won’t be part of the product after testing is completed. SQA must be part of Software Engineering from the beginning

 The goals of SQA

1.    to improve software quality by monitoring both the process and the product

2.    to ensure compliance with all local standards for SE

3.    to ensure that any product defect, process variance, or standards non-compliance is noted and fixed


You are hired to manage the software engineering of a new product estimated at 25,000 lines of code, involving three or four people working for about 18 months

Consider the following:

1.    What should be in place before the project starts?

2.    What quality checkpoints should you have?

3.    What measures will you collect to determine the level of quality of the work being performed?

 SQA: a dose of reality

1.    SQA cannot put quality into a product

2.    the existence of an SQA function is no guarantee that quality will exist

3.    if management doesn’t act on SQA, the function will be ineffective

4.    unless SQA and development staff work together, little benefit will be derived

Quality Control Vs. Quality Assurance

  • Quality control is about work product, quality assurance is about work process.
  • Quality control activities are work product oriented. They measure the product, identify deficiencies, and suggest improvements. The direct result of these activities are changes to the product. These can range from single-line code changes to completely reworking a product.  It is an error-removal technique.
  • Quality assurance activities are work process oriented. They measure the process, identify deficiencies, and suggest improvements. The direct result of these activities are changes to the process. These changes can range from better compliance with the process to entirely new processes. The output of quality control activities is often the input to quality assurance activities.
Software Quality

Conformance to explicitly stated functional and performance requirements, explicitly documented development standards and implicit characteristics that are expected of all professionally develop software.

 An alternative definition by W. Edwards Deming

Striving for excellence in reliability and functions by continuous (process) improvement, supported by statistical  analysis of the causes of failure

Three (3) important points to remember on software quality
  1. Software requirements are the foundation from which quality is measured.  Lack of conformance to requirements is lack of quality.
  2. Specified standards define a set of development criteria that guide the manner in which software is engineered.  If the criteria are not followed, lack of quality will almost surely result.
  3. There is a set of implicit requirements that often goes unmentioned (e.g., the desire for good maintainability).  If software conforms to its explicit requirements, but fails to meet implicit requirements.

Quality Characteristics

Is any property or element that can be used to define the nature of a product. Each characteristic can be physical or chemical properties such as size, weight, volume, color or composition.

Software Quality

1.    Is achieved through a disciplined approach – called software engineering SE

2.    Can be defined, described, and measured

3.    Can be assessed before any code has been written

4.    Cannot be tested into a product

Software quality challenges

1.    Defining it

2.    Describing it (qualitatively)

3.    Measuring it (quantitatively)

4.    Achieving it (technically)

Designing software is a creative task, and like most such tasks, success is more likely if the designer follows what might be termed a set of rules of form. The rules of form also provide some way of assessing the quality of the eventual product, and possibly of the processes that led to it.

Quality example

Music provides a good analogy: we could write music by scattering notes around at random, but we would get a better result if we considered melody and harmony

In his book Quality Is Free, Philip Crosby suggests an analogy between quality and sex:

1.    Everyone is for it, except in certain situations;

2.    Everyone believes they understand it, but they don’t want to explain it;

3.    Most people believe the execution is merely a matter of following natural inclinations;

4.    Everyone believes that problems with it are always someone else’s fault


A set of abstract quality factors (‘the ilities’) has been defined. These cannot be measured directly but do relate to the ultimate goal.










Software Quality Factors (by McCall)


1)  Product Revision (changing it)


  • Flexibility (can I change it?)

The effort required to modify an operational program. Change and enhancement of the system should be easily implementable.

  • Maintainability (can I fix it?)

The effort required to locate and fix an error in a program. The system should be easy to keep up for its intended use. Changes for improving operational efficiency should be easy to implement. Failed operations should be easy to restore to satisfactory condition.

  • Testability (can I test it?)

The effort required to test a program to ensure that it performs its intended function . The ability of the system to produce quality product units should be easily testable. Useful messages should be generated for testing and debugging purposes.

2) Product Transition (modifying it to work in a different environment)

  • Interoperability (Will I be able to interface it with another system?)

The effort required to couple one system to another.

  • Portability (Will I be able to use it on another machine?)

The  effort required to transfer the program from one hardware and/or software      system environment to another. The system should be portable among people and among machines. Attainment of the other quality characteristics greatly facilitates portability.

  • Reusability (Will I be able to reuse some of the software?)

The extent   to  which  a  program  (or part of a program) can be reused in other    applications-related to the packaging and scope of the functions that the program     performs.

3)   Product Operations (using it)


  • Correctness (Does it do what I want?)

The extent to which  a program satisfies its specification and fulfills the      customer’s mission objectives. The extent to which software is free from design defects and from coding defects.; that is fault-free.


  • Reliability (Does it do it accurately all of the time?)

The extent to which a program can be expected to perform its intended function  with required precisions under stated conditions for a stated period of time.


  • Efficiency (Will it run on my hardware as well as it can?)

The extent to which a software  performs its function.with a minimum consumption of computing resources. It should not use any hardware components or peripheral equipment unnecessarily.


  • Integrity (Is it secure?)

The extent to which access to software or data by unauthorized persons can  be controlled.


  • Usability (Is it designed for the use?)

The effort required to learn, operate, prepare input, and interpret output of a program.

Quality Metrics

Provides an indication of how closely software conforms to implicit (essential) and explicit (specific)  requirements.


The ease with which conformance to standards can be checked.


The precision of computations and control. A qualitative assessment of freedom from error. A quantitative measure of the magnitude of error. The correct data values are recorded.

Communication commonality

The degree to which standards interfaces, protocols, and bandwidths are used.

  • Completeness

The degree to which full implementation of required function has been achieved. All data items are captured and stored for use. Data items are properly identified with time periods.


  • Conciseness

The compactness of the program in terms of lines code.


  • Consistency

The use of uniform design and documentation techniques throughout the software development project.


  • Data commonality

The use of standard data structures and types throughout the program.


  • Error tolerance

The damage that occurs when the programs encounters an error. Suitable error prevention and detection procedures are in place. There are procedures for reporting and correcting errors. Various audit procedures are applied.


  • Execution efficiency

The run-time performance of a program.




  • Expandability

The degree to which architectural, data, or procedural design can be extended.


  • Generality

The breadth of potential application of program  components.


  • Hardware independence

The degree to which the software is decoupled from the hardware on which it operates.


  • Instrumentality

The degree to which the program monitors its own operation and identifies errors that do occur.


  • Modularity

The functional independence of program components.


  • Operability

The ease of operation of a program.


  • Robustness

The extent to which software can continue to operate correctly despite the introduction of invalid inputs


  • Security

The availability of mechanism that control or protect programs and data. The system and its operations are protected from various environmental and operation risks. There are provisions for recovery in the event of failure or destruction of part or all system


  • Self-documentation

The degree to which the source code provides meaningful documentation.


  • Simplicity

The degree to which a program can be understood without difficulty.


  • Software system independence

The degree to which the program is  independent of nonstandard programming language features, operating system characteristics, and other environmental constraints.



  • Traceability

The ability to trace a design representation or actual program component back to requirements.


  • Training

The degree to which the software in enabling new users to apply the system.


Laws of software evolution dynamics  (by Belady  and Lehman):


  1. Law of continuing Change (self evident)- a large program that is being used undergoes continuing change until it is judged more cost-effective to rewrite it. Software over time must be changed not only to repair errors that are discovered, but also to incorporate enhancements to adapt to new hardware systems and changing environment.


  1. Law of Increasing Entropy (intuitive)- the entropy (disarray) of a system increases with time unless specific work is done to maintain it or to reduce it. Continuous changes made to a system tend to destroy the integrity of the system thus increasing entropy.


  1. Law of Statistically-Smooth Change (controversial) – Measures of a global system attributes and project attributes may appear quite irregular for a particular system, but are cynically self-regulating, with statistically identifiable invariance and well-defined long-range trends. Work input or the effort expended per unit time, remained constant over the lifetime of the system.



  1. Application of  technical methods

The use of technical tools and methods helps analyst to achieve high quality specification and the designer to develop a high quality design


  1. Conduct of formal technical reviews (FTR)

Reviews are another quality control activity. Again, reviews are held to find defects in a work product. The result is changes to the work product. Over time, the collection of  these changes may induce process changes, but that is not necessary.

  1. To uncover errors in function., logic or implementation for any representation of the software
  2. To verify if software meet requirements
  3. To ensure that software has been presented according to pre-defined standards.
  4. To achieve software that is developed in a uniform manner
  5. Make projects more manageable.

It is not the task of team to correct faults, but merely to record them for later correction.


Defect found early in the software life cycle can be repaired at much less expense than later in the life cycle.


Types of  Reviews


1)   Walk through – an interactive process to evoke questions and discussions


time limit  –  2 hours SQA , participants :  4  –  6,  senior tech. staff


Ways to conduct  walk through:


  1. Participant – driven
  • each participant goes through his or her list of unclear items which may appear incorrect.
  1. document-driven
    • A person responsible for the document walks the participants through that document, with the reviewers in everything either with their prepared comments or comments triggered by the presentation


2) Inspection  (goes far beyond walk through)


Formal steps of inspection

  1. an overview of document is given to participants
  2. participants prepare for inspection, aided with lists of fault types previously found
  3. inspection – every piece of logic is covered at least once, and every branch is taken at least once. Written report is inspection is produce
  4. Rework – resolves all faults and problems noted in written report
  5. Follow-up ensure that every single issue raised has been satisfactorily resolved.


Review Guidelines


  1. Review the product, not the producer
  2. Set an agenda and maintain it.
  3. Limit debate and rebuttal
  4. Enunciate problem areas, but don’t attempt to solve every problem noted.
  5. Take written notes
  6. Limit the number of participants and insist upon advance preparation
  7. Develop a checklist for each product that is likely to be reviewed.
  8. Allocate resources and time schedule for FTRs
  9. Conduct meaningful training for all reviewers.
  10. Review your early reviews



  1. Software testing


Software testing is the activity or running software to find errors in the software. The direct output of testing results in product changes. A study of these changes may result in process changes, but this is not necessary. Thus, testing is a quality control activity. It combines a multi-step strategy with a series of test case design methods that help ensure effective error detection .Program testing can be very effective way to show the presence of bugs but it is hopelessly inadequate for showing their absence [Dijkastra 1972]


  1. Enforcement of standards


SQA must be established to ensure that standards are being followed. An assessment of compliance to standards must be conducted


  1. Control of change


Every change to software has the potential for introducing error or creating side effects that propagate errors. Request for change must be formalize, evaluate the nature of change, control the impact of change.


  1. Measurement


To track software quality and assess impact of changes to software quality.


  1. Record keeping and reporting


`           Provide procedures for the collection and dissemination of SQA information.


Software Quality and Productivity:  What Top Management Must Do


  1. Create constancy of purpose to increase software quality and productivity. With a plan to become competitive and to stay in business.  Top management is responsible to the general public, especially the software users whose satisfaction is the supreme justification for the existence of a software business.


  1. Adopt the new philosophy of quality and cost-effective software – with the understanding that we can no longer live with delays, mistakes, poor quality and costly software.


  1. Cease dependence on conventional software methods – requiring, instead, statistical evidence that software quality is built in the eliminate need for inspection and correction on the job where the software is used. Top management of every computer and software developer and user company has a  new job and must learn it.  Every user company can now demand meaningful software warranty using statistical quality control.  Every developer company must  now show credibility by delivering software warranty.


  1. End the practice of awarding software business on a lowest cost basis – demanding, instead, meaningful measures of quality  along with price.   Software developers who cannot qualify with statistical evidence of quality must be eliminated.


  1. Find problems – Management must work continually on improving software practices: training, supervision, retraining, and improvement of software development methodologies using statistical methods.


  1. Institute modern methods and rigorous programs of training in software engineering and quality assurance with statistical quality control.


  1. Institute modern methods of supervision of software personnel – The responsibility of software personnel must change from sheer numbers to both numbers and quality. Achievement of quality will automatically increase productivity.


  1. Drive out fear – so that everyone in a software company will work effectively.


  1. Break down barriers among departments – Personnel in research, design, development, sales, and production must work as a team to foresee problems of software development.


  1. Create a structure in top management that will direct and control every day on the above nine points.

World Geography MCQs

1. What is total area of the earth?
A. 510.94 million sq. km B. 492.102 million sq. km
C. 392.023 million sq. km D. 692.192 million sq. km

2. The total area of the earth contains:
A. 141.94 million sq.km B. 123.59 million sq. km
C. 148.94 million sq. km D. 139.91 million sq. km

3. The total area of world the oceans contains:
A. 259.132 million sq. km B. 391.321 million sq. km
C. 349.511 million sq. km D. 61.132 million sq. km

World History MCQs

World History Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs) Page-1. It includes questions from European history, British history as well as Asian history. Besides, some questions from American history. Find answers to the questions at the bottom of the page.

1. Napoleon Bonaparte was a __________ military and political leader.
(A) American
(B) British
(C) German
(D) French
2. Adolf Hitler was a __________ military and political leader.
(A) American
(B) British
(C) German
(D) French
3. Napoleon Bonaparte was finally defeated at the _______ in June 1815.
(A) Peninsular War
(B) Invasion of Russia
(C) Battle of Waterloo
(D) Battle of Leipzig
4. World War II in Europe was outbreak by the German invasion of
(A) Russia
(B) Poland
(C) Croatia
(D) France
5. United States was discovered by Christopher Columbus during his voyage in
(A) 1486
(B) 1488
(C) 1490
(D) 1492
6. In United States, the Congress declared independence from Great Britain on
(A) July 4, 1774
(B) July 4, 1775
(C) July 4, 1776
(D) July 4, 1777
7. North Atlantic Treaty of NATO was signed on _____ in Washington D.C.
(A) April 04, 1947
(B) April 04, 1948
(C) April 04, 1949
(D) April 04, 1950
8. In the war of 1812 between 13 States of US and Great Britain; Britain set fire to White House in
(A) April 1813
(B) August 1813
(C) April 1814
(D) August 1814
9. World War I was lasted from?
(A) 1914 to 1918
(B) 1913 to 1917
(C) 1914 to 1917
(D) 1913 to 1918
10. World War II was lasted from?
(A) 1939 to 1945
(B) 1939 to 1944
(C) 1937 to 1941
(D) 1937 to 1939
1. D
2. C
3. C
4. B
5. D
6. C
7. C
8. D
9. A
10. A